Planet Earth Rock and Roll Orchestra
The Creation of a Science Fiction Epic and the Band that Rocked the Universe
PART TWO - THE PLAYERS
Suzanne McNamara Colton
Without Paul Kantner there would be no
Jefferson Starship. He had the greatest philosophical impact on
Jefferson Airplane/Starship than any other single member. For over
two decades his personal commitment, discipline and determination
forged the Jefferson Starship "Democracy". His interest in science
fiction was to transform Jefferson Airplane into Jefferson
Starship, but an album of all Science Fiction was beyond the scope
of either Band. Paul discovered science fiction at a very young
age while attending a Jesuit military boarding school. Paul would
scour the shelves for the realm of fantastic literature. Paul's
solid work ethic could be credited to the Jesuits as well, who
would successfully instill the military-like discipline that would
shape his adult life.
Paul attended the University of Santa Clara (1959-61) and San Jose State College (1961-63), While at San Jose he lived in a "proto-hippie commune" with David Crosby and David Freiberg.
Paul returned to San Francisco in March 1965. He had learned to play guitar and was playing in a folk club called the Drinking Gourd. It was there that Paul met Marty Balin and together they formed Jefferson Airplane.
The Jefferson Airplane's association with members of the Great Society would lead to the addition of Grace Slick to the Airplane family. Paul would later admit that he fell instantly in love with its singer, Grace Slick. In September 1966, it was Paul who suggested Grace as a replacement for Signe Anderson. And it was Jack Casady who was put up by the rest of the Airplane to ask Grace to join the band. On October 14,1966 Grace made her debut as a member of the Jefferson Airplane.
Within the group, Paul played rhythm guitar, sang backup with an occasional lead here and there. He contributed Come Up the Years co-written with Marty Balin and Go to Her (later released on Early Flight). He would quietly and steadfastly become more prolific. Paul wrote the majority of the band's third album, After Bathing at Baxter's (1967) which contained Paul's ode to A.A. Milne, The Ballad of You & Me & Pooneil.
The Jefferson Airplane became both spokesman of and symbol for the counterculture. To this task Paul would write songs such as Crown of Creation (1968) and We Can Be Together (1969). The "Establishment" was and included the band's own record company, RCA. In We Can Be Together, Paul would not drop or change the line, "Up against the wall, motherf#*k*r!" It drew fierce attention from RCA over its inclusion, but ultimately the company finally backed down. Volunteers would also showcase Paul's first voyage into music and science fiction on Wooden Ships co-written by David Crosby and Stephen Stills a song about a band of people who escape from a totalitarian society to start a free colony elsewhere. This thread as it were would become a major theme of Paul's future projects.
In 1970, Paul began an affair with Grace Slick . They soon started living together. Grace wanted to have his child; in January 1971, their daughter, China, was born.
At that time Paul began recording a solo album with David Crosby, Jerry Garcia, and others. The album, Blows Against the Empire was a stellar commercial success and was nominated for science fiction's prestigious Hugo Award. The album was to be the first to be credited as the "Jefferson Starship". Paul would refer to this studio group as The Planet Earth Rock and Roll Orchestra which featured:
David Crosby - guitar, vocals
Paul Kantner - guitar, vocals
Jack Casady - bass
Spencer Dryden - drums
David Freiberg - guitar, bass, keyboards, vocals
Jerry Garcia, 28 - guitar, vocals
Mickey Hart, 27 - drums, percussion
Jorma Kaukonen - guitar
Bill Kreutzmann, 24 - drums
Phil Lesh, 30 - bass, vocals
Graham Nash - guitar, keyboards, vocals
Grace Slick - vocals
in various configurations, capacities and groupings
From 1971 to 1973 Paul and Grace released their joint solo (with the help of PERRO) efforts: Sunfighter (1971) and Baron Von Tollboth & the Chrome Nun (1973) which featured David Freiberg. Paul continued to delve into the realm of science fiction producing When the Earth Moves Again and War Movie in 1971 for the Jefferson Airplane. The controversial Son of Jesus, 1972 became another bone of contention with RCA and its inclusion on Long John Silver. Long John Silver became a gold record on the band-owned Grunt Records.
Paul spent much of his time in the studio earning the nickname "Mr. Rock and Roll, 24 hours a day." for his workaholic habits. Dragonfly was released in 1974 and Paul contributed two songs Ride the Tiger which was co-written with Grace Slick. The song made the U.S. singles charts. The other was Caroline which was co-written and sung by Marty Balin. Marty was now part of the band Jefferson Starship.
Paul penned the title track of the band's 1979 album Freedom at Point Zero which hailed "Rock 'n' roll isn't over." Grace rejoined the band in 1981 at Paul's invitation.
Paul and Grace's relationship had ended in late 1975. Grace was married again within a year. Paul was to become romantically involved with the band's publicist, Cynthia Bowman. Cynthia bore his third child, Alexander, in 1982. In the very early days of the Jefferson Airplane Paul had fathered his first child a son named Gareth in 1968.
1983 would bring both members of Jefferson Airplane, Jefferson Starship, the Kantner children plus a host of seasoned session players to form Paul Kantner's Planet Earth Rock and Roll Orchestra, the companion piece to 1970's Blows Against the Empire. It would take more than 20 years for this science fiction masterpiece to be reissued. Hailed as the long lost Jefferson Airplane/Jefferson Starship album, Sony/BMG Music is releasing Planet Earth Rock and Roll Orchestra for 2005.
However, Jefferson Starship was to move further and further away from its original concepts which ultimately led Paul Kantner to leave the band in July 1984. He had put in 19 years as a veteran of Jefferson Airplane and Jefferson Starship.
In 1985 he formed his the band, KBC with Marty Balin and Jack Casady. The band produced one album and toured for the next two years.
In 1987, Paul traveled to Nicaragua. He played for the Sandinistas who were familiar with such revolutionary songs as Volunteers. He became close to the people of Nicaragua. He was inspired to write a book entitled Paul Kantner's Nicaragua Diary aptly subtitled: How I spent my Summer Vacation or I was a Commie Dupe for the Sandinistas. Paul was to return to the US reinvigorated.
It was Paul Kantner who sparked a Jefferson Airplane reunion in 1989 with Grace, Marty, Jack, and Jorma. The reunion produced one album and a tour. In 1992 he launched a new band under the name Jefferson Starship claiming that he loved the idea of "hijacking" his own band.
Paul has continued his command of Jefferson Starship The Next Generation since 1992 with JS veteran Marty Balin. The core of the band has consisted of Darby Gould (vocals 1992), Diana Mangano (vocals1995), Prairie Prince (The Tubes) drums, Tim Gorman (keyboards 1992) Chris Smith keyboards, Slick Aguilar (David Crosby band) guitar, and both Jack Casady and Tom Lily on bass. The Jefferson Starship extended family has included David Freiberg (Quicksilver Messenger Service) Jack Traylor (Steelwind) Signe Anderson (vocalist on Jefferson Airplane's first album),Tom Constanten keyboards (Grateful Dead) and many others.
Paul Kantner played guitar, synthesizer, banjo, glass harmonica, and provided vocals on Planet Earth Rock and Roll Orchestra.
Grace Slick attended Finch College in New York (1957-58), before
transferring to the University of Miami (1958-59). There she
majored in art, auditioned as a singer at a black record label and
modeled for I. Magnin's department store from 1960-63. Grace was
to later say that she had no ambitions beyond being a housewife.
She married Gerald "Jerry" Slick, a film student and later a
successful cinematographer on August 26, 1961.
In August 1965, Grace and Jerry went to see the band Jefferson Airplane at the Matrix Club. Grace had read an article about the band in the San Francisco Chronicle and was curious. A week later, Grace formed her own band, the Great Society with Jerry as drummer, and his brother Darby Slick on guitar. The lineup was completed by David Minor (guitar/vocals), Peter van Gelder (sax/bass) and, briefly, Bard DuPont (bass). The Great Society made its debut at the Coffee Gallery in North Beach, CA on September 22, 1965.
Grace developed a forceful singing style that often attempted to imitate the sound of an electric guitar. She discovered a natural ability for writing songs with White Rabbit being one of her first compositions. The Great Society Grace's found themselves opening for Jefferson Airplane and other successful, west coast bands. Columbia records offered the Great Society a recording contract but, by the time the contract arrived in the mail, the Great Society was no more.
In September 1966, Jack Casady asked Grace if she might be interested in joining the Jefferson Airplane. On October 14,1966 Grace made her unexpected debut with the Jefferson Airplane at the Fillmore Auditorium in San Francisco. Her predecessor, Signe Anderson never showed up. Grace was prevailed upon by the Jefferson Airplane to do the show on the spot.
The Jefferson Airplane then went to Los Angeles to record its second album, Surrealistic Pillow of which Grace did contribute two impressive songs from the Great Society White Rabbit and Darby Slick's Somebody to Love. These songs were to become the band's two top ten hits and Grace was to become an instant legend.
Grace was an equal among equals. Her voice was instantly recognizable,captivating and alluring. She could hold her own as a lyrisist and a composer. Her songs were unabashedly honest often attacking middle class repression (Rejoyce, 1967), (Greasy Heart, 1968), and assaulting human arrogance (Eskimo Blue Day, 1969) For Spencer Dryden's 30th birthday, she wrote Lather (1968), a song which contemplated the anxieties of growing older.
By 1969, Grace's relationship with Spencer Dryden had ended. Paul Kantner and Grace Slick entered into a relationship that made rock and roll history. Grace decided that she wanted to have Paul's child and on January 25, 1971their daughter, China, was born. Grace initially told the press that she was going to name the child "god.")
Grace continued to work on innovative solo and collaborative projects with Paul Kantner through the '70s including Jefferson Starship's Blows Against the Empire.
Grace provided stunning vocals on Planet Earth Rock and Roll Orchestra as well as piano accompaniment.
Jack Casady began playing out on guitar at age 15 in Washington
D.C. A local bar, The Rendezvous was where he jammed with his
friend, Jorma Kaukonen. Jack and Jorma formed a rock 'n' roll
band, the Triumphs and produced a 78-rpm record, Magic Key. Their
friendship would lead to Jack becoming a member of the Jefferson
In the early '60s, Jack attended college when it didn't conflict with his own lesson plans. Jack taught guitar to about 50 students. His interests in music became voracious. He embraced jazz, classical, and other types of music besides his love for the blues. Around 1963 he began backing the likes of Ray Charles and Little Anthony when they played the D.C. area. and had made the switch from guitar to bass.
Jorma had decided to move to the West Coast, but the two friends still kept in touch. In October 1965, Jorma invited Jack Casady to audition for a new band he was playing with, Jefferson Airplane. Jack agreed. When Jorma picked him up at the airport (legend has it that) Jorma said, "You better be able to play bass." Jorma had never heard Jack play bass before. Besides playing bass, the first thing that Jack Casady was required to do for the Jefferson Airplane was to shave off his moustache. Jack responded by shaving off half of it that way the band would only have to look at him from one side. Jack's wry sense of humor won him instant acceptance. Jack Casady joined the band two months after its debut. Jack played his first gig with the Jefferson Airplane on October 30, 1965.
Rolling Stone's assessment of Jack's bass playing "perhaps the strongest bassist around outside of a blues band." That came with the release of After Bathing at Baxter's. Jack was not content to be in the rhythm section. He played the bass like a lead guitar. He shaped the sound and structure of the Jefferson Airplane and helped redefine the role of bassists in rock 'n' roll. His own style has been described as formidable and apocalyptic.
In the 1980s, Jack worked with his former band mates in almost every Jefferson Airplane incarnation. He appeared on Paul Kantner's Planet Earth Rock & Roll Orchestra (1983), joined Paul Kantner and Marty Balin in the KBC Band, resurrected Hot Tuna in 1983 with Jorma Kaukonen . In 1989, Jack joined Jefferson Airplane members for a one-album, one-tour reunion.
Jack continued to play with both Hot Tuna and Jefferson Starship -The Next Generation through the 1990s. His ultimate commitment though to Hot Tuna has resulted in sparse appearances (of late) in Jefferson Starship.
Ironically, Grace Slick once told reporters that she was going to name her child by Paul Kantner "god" ; whereas Jack Casady was affectionately known to his fans as "God".
Jack Casady played "wall shaking" bass on Planet Earth Rock and Roll Orchestra.
China Kantner was born January 25 1971 in the French Hospital, San
Francisco, CA. She is the daughter of Jefferson Airplane/Jefferson
Starship members Paul Kantner and Grace Slick. China first
appeared as an infant on the album cover of "Sunfighter" a Kantner/Slick
solo LP of 1971.
China would receive song writing co-credits with her father, Paul Kantner and her mother, Grace Slick at a very young age.
With Jefferson Starship she is credited as follows:
on Spitfire, (1976), Don't Let It Rain.
on Freedom At Point Zero, (1980), Things To Come.
on Winds Of Change, (1982), Out Of Control. Paul Kantner/Grace Slick
On her father's solo work.
on The Planet Earth Rock And Roll Orchestra, (1983), The Sky Is No Limit.
China made her singing debut in 1983 on Paul Kantner's The Planet Earth Rock And Roll Orchestra. She is credited with providng vocals on the following tracks:
The Planet Earth Rock And Roll Orchestra, (1983),
Declaration Of Independence, (Lead vocal)
The Sky Is No Limit,
Deep Space/Virgin Sky, (1995),
(Uncredited on LP, Recording of 21 Jan 1995 House Of Blues show.)
In July 1986, China appeared as a guest VJ on MTV. She spent the next four years as a regular MTV VJ. China interviewed her father for the MTV "Summer of Love" 20th anniversary celebrations. China also had an active film career. Over the years she has made many on-stage appearances with her parents and the current line up of Jefferson Starship in southern California.
China studied for a psychology degree at Santa Monica College and won a full scholarship to a prominant LA college. She's currently studying Art History, to receive a Ph.D. She would like to teach Art History in Italy. She's been involved with Jamie Azdair since 1999 and is a step-mother to a 11 year old.
China Kantner provided vocals for Planet Earth Rock and Roll Orchestra and received song credits for The Sky Is No Limit.
Alexander Kantner appeared on Planet Earth Rock and Roll Orchestra
(1983) at the age of one years old.
on the track: Underground (The Laboratories)
Music by Paul Kantner, Ron Nagle, Scott Mathews.
Vocals by Grace Slick and Alexander Bowman Kantner
Lead guitar by Paul Kantner
Has since appeared on stage playing guitar with his father, Paul Kantner and half sister China Kantner.
David Freiberg of Quicksilver Messenger Service and of Jefferson
Airplane. David appeared on the live set, Thirty Seconds Over
Winterland (1973), collaborated with Paul and Grace Slick on their
1973 effort, Baron Von Tollbooth and the Chrome Nun. He also
assisted Paul on Grace's solo album, Manhole (1974). David became
a key figure of Jefferson Starship. He alternated with Pete Sears
on bass and keyboards. He sang lead on Come to Life co-written
with Robert Hunter on (Dragon Fly, 1974) (Let's not forget that he
wrote the mega-hit Jane for Jefferson Starship and is still a
force to be reckoned with today!-rick)
David Freiberg played synthesizer and provided vocals to Planet Earth Rock and Roll Orchestra.
Pete Sears, a multi-instrumentalist played bass and keyboards for
Jefferson Starship and Starship for 13 years. He played on Rod
Stewart's,Every Picture Tells a Story (1971), and on albums by
Frank Zappa, Long John Baldry, and others. In 1973, Pete was asked
by Paul Kantner and Grace Slick to play on Grace's Manhole album.
In June 1974, he joined Jefferson Starship, alternating on bass
and keyboards with David Freiberg. Pete collaborated with Grace on
Hyperdrive, a signature piece from Dragon Fly (1974). His
distinctive piano could be heard on Miracles (1975) Count on Me
(1978), and the jabbing keyboard intro on Jane (1979). Pete and
Craig Chaquico, provided the shimmering twin lead guitars on
Flying over the pond between the US and England Pete has toured, recorded and done session work on over one hundred albums. He has played with many artists including John Lee Hooker, Ron Wood, Jerry Garcia, Taj Mahal, Mickey Hart, Bob Weir , Long John Baldry, Rod Stewart, the original Stoneground, Cream lyricist Pete Brown, Mike Bloomfield, Roy Harper, Robert Hunter, Ike and Tina Turner, Papa John Creach, Maria Muldar, Alex Harvey, Wavy Gravy, Sly Stone, The Pointer Sisters, Nils Lofgrin, Big Brother and Quicksilver Messenger Service.
He has also jammed with such notable people as Jimi Hendrix, Carlos Santana, The Allman Brothers, Elvis Costello, David Crosby, Paul Butterfield, Blues Traveler, Grateful Dead, and many more.
Pete Sears played piano on Planet Earth Rock and Roll Orchestra.
Craig Chaquico first appeared on Paul and Grace's Sunfighter album
(1971). He was featured on Jack Traylor's song, Earth Mother.
Craig muses that the recording session took place on his 16th
birthday. He was a talented child prodigy, a guitar virtuoso by
his early teens. He played guitar on Baron Von Tollbooth and the
Chrome Nun in 1973. Craig's astounding guitar licks soared on Ride
the Tiger , Jefferson Starship's first hit. On Dragon Fly (1974),
Craig co-authored the international hit single, Jane (with David
Freiberg, Paul Kantner, and Jim McPherson) which showcases Craig's
development as a lead guitarist.
Craig Chaquico played guitar on Planet Earth Rock and Roll Orchestra.
John Blakeley, a guitar legend and an original member of '60s
surf-rock band The Sandals. Formed in California in 1962 by the
Belgian brothers Gaston and Walter Georis and locals John Blakeley
(later of Stoneground and The Durocs), John Gibson and Danny
Brawner. Their signature sound came from their unusual choice of
Gibson guitars and Gaston's clavietta, a cross between piano and
accordion. Their compositional skills of numerous originals were
quite impressive as well as lucrative. As The Sandells they
released the LP Scrambler! which included their theme for Bruce
Brown's surfing film, Endless Summer. The soundtrack contained six
of the Sandells Scrambler! LP tracks. World Pacific Records
re-released the Scrambler! LP and retitled it as The Endless
Summer. The group was also renamed The Sandals to conjure up a
more surfy theme.
John Blakeley played guitar on Planet Earth Rock and Roll Orchestra.
Ronnie Montrose played with Van Morrison on "St. Dominic's
Preview" and "Tupelo Honey" on theTupelo album. He was an original
member of the Edgar Winter Group and was featured on "They Only
Come Out At Night", a break out album for Edgar Winter which was
produced by guitarist Rick Derringer. It was Ronnie Montrose who
provided the signature guitar for Gary Wright on "Dream Weaver".
Montrose was asked to join Mott The Hopple but declined. Instead,
Ronnie Montrose decided to start his own group in 1973 with Sammy
Hagar on vocals. He later guested on Sammy Hagar's Marching to
Mars. For that album he teamed up and co-wrote Who Has the Right,
with former Jefferson Starship bandmate Craig Chaquico. Ronnie
Montrose recently released the soundtrack to the SEGA GENESIS game
Ronnie Montrose played guitar on Planet Earth Rock and Roll Orchestra.
Mickey Thomas originally sang for Elvin Bishop's (ex-Paul
Butterfield Blues Band) starting in 1974as a backup singer. He was
soon to provide lead vocals on Fooled Around and Fell in Love
(1976) a #3 hit in the U.S., and appeared on four albums with
Bishop -- Let It Flow (1974), Juke Joint Jump (1975), Struttin' My
Stuff (1976, which included Fooled Around and Fell in Love) and
Raisin' Hell (1977). In 1979, Mickey received a call, from
Jefferson Starship, who were interested in him as lead singer. On
April 12, 1979, he signed on for two albums. With the release of
Jane, Mickey's searing falsetto instantly established him as the
lead singer for Jefferson Starship. The song became a U.S. top
twenty hit. Mickey shared lead vocals with Paul Kantner on Freedom
at Point Zero and that dynamic duo voicing exchange is
particularly evident on the title track. With the release of
Modern Times in 1981, Mickey was to find himself sharing the stage
with Grace Slick duetting on such songs as Stranger and Winds of
Change (Modern Times) He would later on to sing lead on the hit
singles Find Your Way Back, 1981, Be My Lady, 1982, and No Way
Mickey Thomas provided vocals on Planet Earth Rock and Roll Orchestra.
Ron Nagle is a composer, lyricist, singer and pianist whose songs
have been recorded by the Tubes, Barbra Streisand and others. He
is a master ceramic sculptor and painter. This rock 'n' roll
songwriter and sculptor has been teaching at Mills College in
Oakland, CA for 25 years. His artistic awards and gallery
presentations are impressive. As a sound effect artist, He is
credited for the special sound effects for the movie "The
Exorcist.'' He was part of The Durocs duo, with Scott Matthews. He
was called upon to provide sounds to Paul Kantner's Planet Earth
Rock and Roll Orchestra in the capacity of The Durocs and helped
to produce Planet Earth Rock and Roll Orchestra. He also has
composed soundtracks which were produced by the late Jack Nitzsche
featuring Jim Barnett, Ry Cooder, John Blakeley , Micky Waller and
George Rains. Ron Nagle and his longtime friend Scott Matthews
have been reworking some of their '70s music including Nagle's
"Somebody Here's Gotta Drive.'' His intuitive approach to art has
been shaped by his musical sensibilities.
Ron Nagle played piano and provided vocals on Planet Earth Rock and Roll Orchestra. He was also involved in the production of this album.
Scott Matthews played a variety of instruments on Planet Earth
Rock and Roll Orchestra. As a member of The Durocs he is credited
as providing sounds. He and long time associate, Ron Nagle
assisted Paul Kantner in producing this historic album. Scott
Matthews has an amazing career. He has produced, recorded or
performed with: The Beach Boys, Johnny and Roseanne Cash, Eric
Clapton, John Fogerty, John Hiatt, Paul Kantner, George Harrison,
John Lee Hooker, Mick Jagger, Steve Miller, Van Morrison, Roy
Orbison, Bonnie Raitt, Keith Richards, Todd Rundgren, Carlos
Santana, Ringo Starr, Barbra Streisand, Brian Wilson, Neil Young,
Elvis Costello, Ry Cooder, Robert Cray, Patti Labelle, Huey Lewis,
Nick Lowe, Steve Perry and many others.
His work in film includes the multiple Oscar winning, 'One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest,' to the Oscar nominated, 'Wag the Dog.' As a songwriter, Scott's songs have sold millions for recording artists from Barbra Streisand to Dave Edmunds.
Scott Matthews played mandolin, piano, organ, harmonica, drums, synthesizer, saxophone, percussion, pedal steel guitar, vocoder and provided vocals on Planet Earth Rock and Roll Orchestra. He was also involved in the production of this album.
|Mark Volman and Howard Kaylan (Flo and Eddie of the Turtles)|
Mark Volman and Howard Kaylan (Flo and Eddie) were the foundiers
of the '60's band the Turtles. Their first single, an arrangement
of a Bob Dylan song, "It Ain't Me Babe." was an immediate hit. The
song climbed into the Top Five nationally - which quickly
established the Turtles as a force of their own. Their first
concert appearance was before 50,000 kids at the Rose Bowl. They
opened for Herman's Hermits.
Mark and Howard have lent their trademark harmonies to T-Rex, John Lennon, Roger McGuinn, Paul Kantner, Hoyt Axton, Ray Manzarek, Stephen Stills, Keith Moon, David Cassidy, Alice Cooper, Tonio K., Blondie, Bruce Springsteen, The Knack, Psychedelic Furs, Sammy Hagar, Livingston Taylor, Burton Cummings, Duran Duran, The Ramones and many others. Mark Volman and Howard Kaylan provided vocals on Planet Earth Rock and Roll Orchestra.
The Durocs were composed of the following:
Scott Mathews, vocals, saxophone
Steve Douglas, saxophone
Philip Aaberg, keyboards
Ron Nagle, vocals
Chris Michie, guitar
Larry Blackshere, vocals (background)
Larry Reid, vocals
Maurice Gridlin, accordion
Eric Stein, synthesizer
John Blakeley (of The Sandals and Stoneground) guitar
The Durocs provided ambient sounds on Planet Earth Rock and Roll Orchestra.
|Aynsley Dunbar was considered to be one of chosen few "signature" drummers of rock and roll. He took the place of Ringo Starr in the group Rory Storm and The Hurricanes when Ringo left to join The Beatles. He played with John Mayall's Bluesbreakers, the Jeff Beck Group, Frank Zappa, and Journey before joining Jefferson Starship for three albums, beginning in 1979. Aynsley Dunbar was the drummer for Planet Earth Rock and Roll Orchestra.|
|The original production credits:|
Producers - Paul Kantner, Ron Nagle, Scott Mathews, Kevin Beamish
Director - Paul Kantner
Production co-ordinator - Pat Ieraci (Maurice)
Production co-ordinator assistant - Vick Ieraci
Mixing commanded by - Ken Kessie
Mixing assistant - Maureen Droney
Engineers - Maureen Droney, Scott Matthews, Ron Nagle, David Frazer, Wayne Lewis, Steve Fontana
Mastering - Jeff Sanders, Lindy Griffin
Art Direction - Jim Welch
Illustrations - Bud Thorn
Recorded at the Automatt, San Francisco
Additional music and sound effects recorded at the Pen, San Francisco
Circle of Fire co produced with Kevin Beamish
Bill Thompson Management